Hawai’i Volcanoes National Park is a United States National Park located in the southeastern US state of Hawaii on the island of Hawai’i.
Two active volcanoes: Kilauea, one of the world’s most active volcanoes, and Mauna Loa, the world’s most massive subaerial volcano, are located here in the national park.
Volcanoes Park is dedicated to providing scientists with insight into the birth of the Hawaiian Islands and ongoing studies into the process of volcanism. For visitors, the park offers a beautiful volcanic landscape, with rare flora and fauna, as well as extensive lava fields.
Many visitors come here to hike in the park and see an active lava flow.
In addition to the lava flow, the two volcanoes and the visitor center of the national park are a major tourist attraction on the island of Hawaii.
History of Volcanoes National Park
According to Mcat-test-centers, Kīlauea and its Halema’uma’u Caldera volcanic crater has traditionally been revered as the sacred home of the volcano goddess Pele. It was a tradition for Hawaiians to visit the crater and bring gifts to the goddess.
But in 1790 there was an accident when a group of warriors and their families were caught in an unusually violent eruption. Many warriors were killed, some leaving imprints in the lava that can still be seen today.
It wasn’t until 1823 that the first western visitors came and explored the area. They included English missionary William Ellis and American missionary Asa Thurston.
Shortly thereafter in 1840, the volcanoes became a tourist attraction in Hawaii. The first hotels were built on the outskirts of the area. Today, Volcano House is the only hotel located within the boundaries of the national park. It was funded by Lorrin A. Thurston, son-in-law of the first American missionary, Asa Thurston.
In 1916 the area was protected and Volcanoes National Park established as Hawaii’s first national park. At the time, it was only the 11th national park to be protected in the United States. It’s more than doubled in size now, even though Haleakala National Park on the island of Maui was split off as a separate entity in 1961.
In recognition of its outstanding natural value, Hawai’i Volcanoes National Park was designated an International Biosphere Reserve in 1980 and a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1987.
In 2004, another 115,788 hectares of Kahuku Ranch were added to the park, increasing it by 56%. Added the area west of the city of Wai’ōhinu and east of Ocean View.
Today, 323,431 hectares of land are home to unusual hiking and camping opportunities. However, more than half of the park is designated as a Hawaii Volcanoes Wilderness Area.
Volcanoes in Volcanoes National Park
Two active volcanoes are located in Volcano Hawaii National Park, the Mauna Loa and Kilauea volcanoes. Mauna Loa is 4,170 m high, 110 km long and 48 km wide with a shield-shaped dome. It is the world’s largest active volcano. Similarly, Kilauea also has a shield-shaped dome that is 80 km long and 23 km wide. Due to the eruptions that both volcanoes produce, the national park in Hawaii consists of a desert-like volcanic landscape.
Important places in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park
Several of the National Registers of Historic Places are located on the island of Hawaii within the park. They are among the most important sights in the park. We have put together the individual ones for you here:
The 1790 footprints refer to tracks near the Kilauea volcano in what is now Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. An unusually explosive eruption in 1790 killed a number of combatants in the area, some leaving their footprints.
The Shipman family purchased 2,559 hectares of land near the Kilauea volcano in 1937 and named the area the Ainahou Ranch. Herbert C. Shipman built a home for his family here as a refuge from the anticipated Japanese invasion of Hawaii and began raising cattle. But after Ainahou Ranch was threatened by a lava flow in 1969, the family sold the ranch to Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. The Ainahou Ranch is now considered a historic site in the national park.
The Ainapo Trail was the first trail that led to the summit of Mauna Loa. The trail started at 2,000 meters on the southeastern flank and continued to Mokuaweoweo, the summit crater at 4,000 meters. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on August 30, 1974.
The Kilauea volcanic crater is an active shield volcano in the Hawaiian Islands. It is one of the most active of Hawaii’s five volcanoes. The volcano is between 300,000 and 600,000 years old. Through its activities, it has a major impact on its surrounding mountain ecology.
Historically, the five volcanoes on the island were sacred to the Hawaiians. In Hawaiian mythology, they served as the home of Pele, the goddess of fire, lightning, winds, and volcanoes.
Puna-Ka’u Historic District
The Puna-Ka’u Historic District is an archaeological area on the Puna-Ka’u Coast in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. Hawaiian culture and archaeological research are the focus of archaeological research here.
Five villages: Poupou-Kauka, Kailiili, Kamoamoa, Lae’apuki and Keahou Landing offer a glimpse of Polynesian agricultural and social practices. The Puna-Ka’u coastal trail connects the individual villages.
In 1974, the Puna-Ka’u Historic District was listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
Volcano House is a series of historic hotels built on the edge of Kilauea Volcano on the grounds of Hawai’i Volcanoes National Park. The original building, constructed in 1877, now houses the Volcano Art Center. The current Volcano Hotel was built in 1941 and expanded in 1961. Holidaymakers in the park like to book overnight stays here.
Hawaii Volcano Observatory with the Whitney Seismograph Vault No. 29
The Hawaii Volcano Observatory (HVO) is a volcano observatory at the Kīlauea volcanic crater on the island of Hawai’i. The observatory monitors four active volcanoes in Hawaii: Kilauea, Mauna Loa, Hualalai, and Haleakalā.
Mauna Loa – Wilkes Campground
Mauna Loa is one of five volcanoes on the island of Hawaii. It is an active shield volcano with relatively gentle slopes. Lava eruptions from Mauna Loa are very fluid and tend to be non-explosive. Mauna Loa’s most recent eruption occurred from March 24 to April 15, 1984
Visitor Center and Museums in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park
The Kīlauea Visitor Center is the first address as you enter the park. Visitors can get the latest information about eruptions, hiking information, activities and information about ranger-guided tours. The visitor center is open daily from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m.
A highlight worth seeing here was the oil painting of Pele, the Hawaiian goddess of fire, lightning, wind and volcanoes. It was designed by D. Howard Hitchcock in 1929. In 2003, the Volcano Art Center held a competition for a more modern design of the goddess. An anonymous jury chose a painting by Arthur Johnsen of Pahoa. In 2005 Hitchcock Johnsen painting was replaced by Johnsen painting.
Volcano Art Center
The nearby Volcano Art Center, housed in the original 1877 Volcano House Hotel, features historical exhibits and a large art gallery.
Another museum is the Thomas A. Jaggar Museum on Crater Rim Drive, 3 miles from the Kīlauea Visitor Center. It has more exhibits and offers a close-up view of Kilauea Volcano. The museum is named for scientist Thomas Jaggar, the first director of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory. The observatory at the museum itself is operated by the US Geological Survey and is not open to the public.